Generic placeholder image

Current Medicinal Chemistry

Eiditor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

The Role of Dietary Approach in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Author(s): Piero Portincasa*, Antony Lembo, Ornella de Bari, Domenica M. Di Palo, Anna Maggio, Ilaria Cataldo and Giuseppe Calamita

Volume 26 , Issue 19 , 2019

Page: [3512 - 3520] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170428102451

Price: $65

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases. In IBS multiple pathophysiological mechanisms including alterations in intestinal motility, permeability, nutrient absorption, and intestinal microbiota have been implicated. Foods are commonly reported by patients to be a trigger of symptoms and therefore are likely involved in the generation of symptoms in IBS. Among all possible therapeutic options, a first-line approach to IBS is dietary education and identification of foods potentially responsible for the onset or worsening of symptoms. Dietary approaches include reduction of gas-producing foods (i.e. fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs)), lactose and gluten. Further studies are required to link the ultimate role of diets in different IBS subtypes.

Keywords: Diet, functional gastrointestinal disorders, FODMAPs, intestinal microbiota, IBS, gas-producing foods.

[1]
Longstreth, G.F.; Thompson, W.G.; Chey, W.D.; Houghton, L.A.; Mearin, F.; Spiller, R.C. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology, 2006, 130(5), 1480-1491.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.061] [PMID: 16678561]
[2]
Lovell, R.M.; Ford, A.C. Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2012, 10, 712-721.e714.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2012.02.029] [PMID: 22426087]
[3]
Halder, S.L.; Locke, G.R., III; Schleck, C.D.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Melton, L.J., III; Talley, N.J. Natural history of functional gastrointestinal disorders: a 12-year longitudinal population-based study. Gastroenterology, 2007, 133(3), 799-807.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.06.010] [PMID: 17678917]
[4]
Ford, A.C.; Forman, D.; Bailey, A.G.; Axon, A.T.; Moayyedi, P. Irritable bowel syndrome: a 10-yr natural history of symptoms and factors that influence consultation behavior. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2008, 103(5), 1229-1239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01740.x] [PMID: 18371141]
[5]
Camilleri, M.; Heading, R.C.; Thompson, W.G. Clinical perspectives, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2002, 16(8), 1407-1430.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2002.01305.x] [PMID: 12182741]
[6]
Drossman, D.A.; Camilleri, M.; Mayer, E.A.; Whitehead, W.E. AGA technical review on irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2002, 123(6), 2108-2131.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.37095] [PMID: 12454866]
[7]
Peery, A.F.; Dellon, E.S.; Lund, J.; Crockett, S.D.; McGowan, C.E.; Bulsiewicz, W.J.; Gangarosa, L.M.; Thiny, M.T.; Stizenberg, K.; Morgan, D.R.; Ringel, Y.; Kim, H.P.; Dibonaventura, M.D.; Carroll, C.F.; Allen, J.K.; Cook, S.F.; Sandler, R.S.; Kappelman, M.D.; Shaheen, N.J. Burden of gastrointestinal disease in the United States: 2012 update Gastroenterology,, 2012, 43, 1179-1187.e1171-1173.
[8]
Mearin, F.; Lacy, B.E.; Chang, L.; Chey, W.D.; Lembo, A.J.; Simren, M.; Spiller, R. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology, 2016, 150, 1393-1407.e1395.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.031] [PMID: 27144627]
[9]
Heaton, K.W.; O’Donnell, L.J.D. An office guide to whole-gut transit time. Patients’ recollection of their stool form. J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 1994, 19(1), 28-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004836-199407000-00008] [PMID: 7930429]
[10]
Lewis, S.J.; Heaton, K.W. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1997, 32(9), 920-924.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365529709011203] [PMID: 9299672]
[11]
Mearin, F.; Lacy, B.E.; Chang, L.; Chey, W.D.; Lembo, A.J.; Simren, M.; Spiller, R. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology, 2016, S0016-5085.(16)00222-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.031] [PMID: 27144627]
[12]
Camilleri, M.; Lasch, K.; Zhou, W. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2012, 303(7), G775-G785.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00155.2012] [PMID: 22837345]
[13]
Camilleri, M. Peripheral mechanisms in irritable bowel syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 367(17), 1626-1635.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1207068] [PMID: 23094724]
[14]
Bonfrate, L.; Tack, J.; Grattagliano, I.; Cuomo, R.; Portincasa, P. Microbiota in health and irritable bowel syndrome: current knowledge, perspectives and therapeutic options. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 2013, 48(9), 995-1009.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2013.799220] [PMID: 23964766]
[15]
Whitehead, W.E.; Holtkotter, B.; Enck, P.; Hoelzl, R.; Holmes, K.D.; Anthony, J.; Shabsin, H.S.; Schuster, M.M. Tolerance for rectosigmoid distention in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 1990, 98(5 Pt 1), 1187-1192.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(90)90332-U] [PMID: 2323511]
[16]
Bouin, M.; Plourde, V.; Boivin, M.; Riberdy, M.; Lupien, F.; Laganière, M.; Verrier, P.; Poitras, P. Rectal distention testing in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of pain sensory thresholds. Gastroenterology, 2002, 122(7), 1771-1777.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.33601] [PMID: 12055583]
[17]
Zuo, X.L.; Li, Y.Q.; Shi, L.; Lv, G.P.; Kuang, R.G.; Lu, X.F.; Li, J.M.; Desmond, P.V. Visceral hypersensitivity following cold water intake in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 41(4), 311-317.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-005-1766-x] [PMID: 16741609]
[18]
Nozu, T.; Kudaira, M.; Kitamori, S.; Uehara, A. Repetitive rectal painful distention induces rectal hypersensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 41(3), 217-222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-005-1748-z] [PMID: 16699855]
[19]
Schmidt, T.; Hackelsberger, N.; Widmer, R.; Meisel, C.; Pfeiffer, A.; Kaess, H. Ambulatory 24-hour jejunal motility in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1996, 31(6), 581-589.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365529609009131] [PMID: 8789897]
[20]
Kumar, D.; Wingate, D. Irritable bowel syndrome: a paroxysmal motor disorder. Lancet, 1986, 1(8481), 620-621.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92846-1] [PMID: 2869331]
[21]
Simrén, M.; Castedal, M.; Svedlund, J.; Abrahamsson, H.; Björnsson, E. Abnormal propagation pattern of duodenal pressure waves in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [correction of (IBD)] Dig. Dis. Sci., 2000, 45(11), 2151-2161.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010770302403] [PMID: 11215731]
[22]
Portincasa, P.; Moschetta, A.; Baldassarre, G.; Altomare, D.F.; Palasciano, G. Pan-enteric dysmotility, impaired quality of life and alexithymia in a large group of patients meeting ROME II criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. World J. Gastroenterol., 2003, 9(10), 2293-2299.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v9.i10.2293] [PMID: 14562396]
[23]
Marshall, J.K.; Thabane, M.; Borgaonkar, M.R.; James, C. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome after a food-borne outbreak of acute gastroenteritis attributed to a viral pathogen. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2007, 5(4), 457-460.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2006.11.025] [PMID: 17289440]
[24]
Marshall, J.K.; Thabane, M.; Garg, A.X.; Clark, W.F.; Salvadori, M.; Collins, S.M. Incidence and epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome after a large waterborne outbreak of bacterial dysentery. Gastroenterology, 2006, 131(2), 445-450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2006.05.053] [PMID: 16890598]
[25]
Thabane, M.; Kottachchi, D.T.; Marshall, J.K. Systematic review and meta-analysis: The incidence and prognosis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2007, 26(4), 535-544.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03399.x] [PMID: 17661757]
[26]
Halvorson, H.A.; Schlett, C.D.; Riddle, M.S. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome--a meta-analysis. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 101(8), 1894-1899.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00654.x] [PMID: 16928253]
[27]
Chadwick, V.S.; Chen, W.; Shu, D.; Paulus, B.; Bethwaite, P.; Tie, A.; Wilson, I. Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2002, 122(7), 1778-1783.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.33579] [PMID: 12055584]
[28]
Liebregts, T.; Adam, B.; Bredack, C.; Röth, A.; Heinzel, S.; Lester, S.; Downie-Doyle, S.; Smith, E.; Drew, P.; Talley, N.J.; Holtmann, G. Immune activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2007, 132(3), 913-920.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.01.046] [PMID: 17383420]
[29]
Saito, Y.A.; Petersen, G.M.; Locke, G.R., III; Talley, N.J. The genetics of irritable bowel syndrome. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2005, 3(11), 1057-1065.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1542-3565(05)00184-9] [PMID: 16271334]
[30]
Beyder, A.; Mazzone, A.; Strege, P.R.; Tester, D.J.; Saito, Y.A.; Bernard, C.E.; Enders, F.T.; Ek, W.E.; Schmidt, P.T.; Dlugosz, A.; Lindberg, G.; Karling, P.; Ohlsson, B.; Gazouli, M.; Nardone, G.; Cuomo, R.; Usai-Satta, P.; Galeazzi, F.; Neri, M.; Portincasa, P.; Bellini, M.; Barbara, G.; Camilleri, M.; Locke, G.R., III; Talley, N.J.; D’Amato, M.; Ackerman, M.J.; Farrugia, G. Loss-of-function of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 (channelopathies) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2014, 146(7), 1659-1668.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.02.054] [PMID: 24613995]
[31]
Chang, L. The role of stress on physiologic responses and clinical symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2011, 140(3), 761-765.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.01.032] [PMID: 21256129]
[32]
Kassinen, A.; Krogius-Kurikka, L.; Mäkivuokko, H.; Rinttilä, T.; Paulin, L.; Corander, J.; Malinen, E.; Apajalahti, J.; Palva, A. The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects. Gastroenterology, 2007, 133(1), 24-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.04.005] [PMID: 17631127]
[33]
Malinen, E.; Rinttilä, T.; Kajander, K.; Mättö, J.; Kassinen, A.; Krogius, L.; Saarela, M.; Korpela, R.; Palva, A. Analysis of the fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls with real-time PCR. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2005, 100(2), 373-382.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.40312.x] [PMID: 15667495]
[34]
Rajilić-Stojanović, M.; Biagi, E.; Heilig, H.G.; Kajander, K.; Kekkonen, R.A.; Tims, S.; de Vos, W.M. Global and deep molecular analysis of microbiota signatures in fecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2011, 141(5), 1792-1801.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.07.043] [PMID: 21820992]
[35]
Saulnier, D.M.; Riehle, K.; Mistretta, T.A.; Diaz, M.A.; Mandal, D.; Raza, S.; Weidler, E.M.; Qin, X.; Coarfa, C.; Milosavljevic, A.; Petrosino, J.F.; Highlander, S.; Gibbs, R.; Lynch, S.V.; Shulman, R.J.; Versalovic, J. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2011, 141(5), 1782-1791.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.06.072] [PMID: 21741921]
[36]
Jeffery, I.B.; O’Toole, P.W.; Öhman, L.; Claesson, M.J.; Deane, J.; Quigley, E.M.; Simrén, M. An irritable bowel syndrome subtype defined by species-specific alterations in faecal microbiota. Gut, 2012, 61(7), 997-1006.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301501] [PMID: 22180058]
[37]
Bischoff, S.C.; Barbara, G.; Buurman, W.; Ockhuizen, T.; Schulzke, J-D.; Serino, M.; Tilg, H.; Watson, A.; Wells, J.M. Intestinal permeability--a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterol., 2014, 14, 189.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-014-0189-7] [PMID: 25407511]
[38]
Simrén, M.; Barbara, G.; Flint, H.J.; Spiegel, B.M.; Spiller, R.C.; Vanner, S.; Verdu, E.F.; Whorwell, P.J.; Zoetendal, E.G. Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a Rome foundation report. Gut, 2013, 62(1), 159-176.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302167] [PMID: 22730468]
[39]
Mättö, J.; Maunuksela, L.; Kajander, K.; Palva, A.; Korpela, R.; Kassinen, A.; Saarela, M. Composition and temporal stability of gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome--a longitudinal study in IBS and control subjects. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2005, 43(2), 213-222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.08.009] [PMID: 15747442]
[40]
Ford, A.C.; Moayyedi, P.; Lacy, B.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Saito, Y.A.; Schiller, L.R.; Soffer, E.E.; Spiegel, B.M.; Quigley, E.M. American College of Gastroenterology monograph on the management of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2014, 109(Suppl. 1), S2-S26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2014.187] [PMID: 25091148]
[41]
Kaptchuk, T.J.; Kelley, J.M.; Conboy, L.A.; Davis, R.B.; Kerr, C.E.; Jacobson, E.E.; Kirsch, I.; Schyner, R.N.; Nam, B.H.; Nguyen, L.T.; Park, M.; Rivers, A.L.; McManus, C.; Kokkotou, E.; Drossman, D.A.; Goldman, P.; Lembo, A.J. Components of placebo effect: randomised controlled trial in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. BMJ, 2008, 336(7651), 999-1003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39524.439618.25] [PMID: 18390493]
[42]
Drossman, D.A.; Thompson, W.G. The irritable bowel syndrome: review and a graduated multicomponent treatment approach. Ann. Intern. Med., 1992, 116(12 Pt 1), 1009-1016.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-116-12-1009] [PMID: 1586090]
[43]
Owens, D.M.; Nelson, D.K.; Talley, N.J. The irritable bowel syndrome: long-term prognosis and the physician-patient interaction. Ann. Intern. Med., 1995, 122(2), 107-112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-122-2-199501150-00005] [PMID: 7992984]
[44]
Halpert, A.; Dalton, C.B.; Palsson, O.; Morris, C.; Hu, Y.; Bangdiwala, S.; Hankins, J.; Norton, N.; Drossman, D.A. Irritable bowel syndrome patients’ ideal expectations and recent experiences with healthcare providers: a national survey. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2010, 55(2), 375-383.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-009-0855-8] [PMID: 19513835]
[45]
Simrén, M.; Månsson, A.; Langkilde, A.M.; Svedlund, J.; Abrahamsson, H.; Bengtsson, U.; Björnsson, E.S. Food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion, 2001, 63(2), 108-115.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000051878] [PMID: 11244249]
[46]
Monsbakken, K.W.; Vandvik, P.O.; Farup, P.G. Perceived food intolerance in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome-- etiology, prevalence and consequences. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2006, 60(5), 667-672.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602367] [PMID: 16391571]
[47]
Gasbarrini, A.; Corazza, G.R.; Gasbarrini, G.; Montalto, M.; Di Stefano, M.; Basilisco, G.; Parodi, A.; Usai-Satta, P.; Vernia, P.; Anania, C.; Astegiano, M.; Barbara, G.; Benini, L.; Bonazzi, P.; Capurso, G.; Certo, M.; Colecchia, A.; Cuoco, L.; Di Sario, A.; Festi, D.; Lauritano, C.; Miceli, E.; Nardone, G.; Perri, F.; Portincasa, P.; Risicato, R.; Sorge, M.; Tursi, A. Methodology and indications of H2-breath testing in gastrointestinal diseases: the Rome Consensus Conference. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2009, 29(Suppl. 1), 1-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.03951.x] [PMID: 19344474]
[48]
Bonfrate, L.; Krawczyk, M.; Lembo, A.; Grattagliano, I.; Lammert, F.; Portincasa, P. Effects of dietary education, followed by a tailored fructose-restricted diet in adults with fructose malabsorption. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2015, 27(7), 785-796.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000000374] [PMID: 25919770]
[49]
Zhu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Cong, Y.; Chu, H.; Fried, M.; Dai, N.; Fox, M. Bloating and distention in irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gas production and visceral sensation after lactose ingestion in a population with lactase deficiency. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2013, 108(9), 1516-1525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2013.198] [PMID: 23917444]
[50]
Yang, J.; Deng, Y.; Chu, H.; Cong, Y.; Zhao, J.; Pohl, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Fried, M.; Dai, N.; Fox, M.; Yang, J.; Deng, Y.; Chu, H.; Cong, Y.; Zhao, J.; Pohl, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Fried, M.; Dai, N.; Fox, M. Prevalence and presentation of lactose intolerance and effects on dairy product intake in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PClin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2013, 11, 262-268.e261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2012.11.034]
[51]
Krawczyk, M.; Wolska, M.; Schwartz, S.; Gruenhage, F.; Terjung, B.; Portincasa, P.; Sauerbruch, T.; Lammert, F. Concordance of genetic and breath tests for lactose intolerance in a tertiary referral centre. J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis., 2008, 17(2), 135-139.
[PMID: 18568133]
[52]
S.; Brandt, L.J.; Chey, W.D.; Foxx-Orenstein, A.E.; Schiller, L.R.; Schoenfeld, P.S.; Spiegel, B.M.; Talley, N.J.; Quigley, E.M. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2009, 104(Suppl. 1), S1-S35.
[53]
Böhmer, C.J.; Tuynman, H.A. The effect of a lactose-restricted diet in patients with a positive lactose tolerance test, earlier diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2001, 13(8), 941-944.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200108000-00011] [PMID: 11507359]
[54]
Portincasa, P.; Di Ciaula, A.; Vacca, M.; Montelli, R.; Wang, D.Q.; Palasciano, G. Beneficial effects of oral tilactase on patients with hypolactasia. Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2008, 38(11), 835-844.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.02035.x] [PMID: 19021701]
[55]
Shepherd, S.J.; Lomer, M.C.; Gibson, P.R. Short-chain carbohydrates and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2013, 108(5), 707-717.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2013.96] [PMID: 23588241]
[56]
Ong, D.K.; Mitchell, S.B.; Barrett, J.S.; Shepherd, S.J.; Irving, P.M.; Biesiekierski, J.R.; Smith, S.; Gibson, P.R.; Muir, J.G. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2010, 25(8), 1366-1373.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06370.x] [PMID: 20659225]
[57]
Gibson, P.R.; Shepherd, S. J. Personal view: food for thought--western lifestyle and susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. The FODMAP hypothesis. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005, 21(12), 1399-1409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02506.x] [PMID: 15948806]
[58]
Moayyedi, P.; Quigley, E.M.; Lacy, B.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Saito, Y.A.; Schiller, L.R.; Soffer, E.E.; Spiegel, B.M.; Ford, A.C. The effect of dietary intervention on irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. Clin. Transl. Gastroenterol, 2015, 6e107.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ctg.2015.21] [PMID: 26291435]
[59]
Shepherd, S.J.; Parker, F.C.; Muir, J.G.; Gibson, P.R. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2008, 6(7), 765-771.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2008.02.058] [PMID: 18456565]
[60]
Halmos, E.P.; Power, V.A.; Shepherd, S.J.; Gibson, P.R.; Muir, J.G. A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2014, 146, 67-75.e65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.09.046] [PMID: 24076059]
[61]
Bohn, L.; Storsrud, S.; Liljebo, T.; Collin, L.; Lindfors, P.; Tornblom, H.; Simren, M. Diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome as well as traditional dietary advice: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology, 2015, 149(6), 1399-1407.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.07.054] [PMID: 26255043]
[62]
McKenzie, Y.A.; Alder, A.; Anderson, W.; Wills, A.; Goddard, L.; Gulia, P.; Jankovich, E.; Mutch, P.; Reeves, L.B.; Singer, A.; Lomer, M.C. British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 2012, 25(3), 260-274.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2012.01242.x] [PMID: 22489905]
[63]
Rao, S.S.C.; Yu, S.; Fedewa, A. Systematic review: dietary fibre and FODMAP-restricted diet in the management of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2015, 41(12), 1256-1270.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.13167] [PMID: 25903636]
[64]
Verdu, E.F.; Huang, X.; Natividad, J.; Lu, J.; Blennerhassett, P.A.; David, C.S.; McKay, D.M.; Murray, J.A. Gliadin-dependent neuromuscular and epithelial secretory responses in gluten-sensitive HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2008, 294(1), G217-G225.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00225.2007] [PMID: 18006603]
[65]
Vazquez-Roque, M.I.; Camilleri, M.; Smyrk, T.; Murray, J.A.; Marietta, E.; O’Neill, J.; Carlson, P.; Lamsam, J.; Janzow, D.; Eckert, D.; Burton, D.; Zinsmeister, A.R. A controlled trial of gluten-free diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: effects on bowel frequency and intestinal function. Gastroenterology, 2013, 144, 903-911.e903.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.01.049] [PMID: 23357715]
[66]
Biesiekierski, J.R.; Newnham, E.D.; Irving, P.M.; Barrett, J.S.; Haines, M.; Doecke, J.D.; Shepherd, S.J.; Muir, J.G.; Gibson, P.R. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2011, 106(3), 508-514.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2010.487] [PMID: 21224837]
[67]
Biesiekierski, J.R.; Peters, S.L.; Newnham, E.D.; Rosella, O.; Muir, J.G.; Gibson, P.R. No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology,, 2013, 145(2), 320-8.e1-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.051] [PMID: 23648697]
[68]
Drossman, D.A.; Whitehead, W.E.; Camilleri, M. Irritable bowel syndrome: a technical review for practice guideline development. Gastroenterology, 1997, 112(6), 2120-2137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.1997.v112.agast972120] [PMID: 9178709]
[69]
Ford, A.C.; Talley, N.J. Irritable bowel syndrome BMJ,, 2012, 345, e5836..
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e5836] [PMID: 22951548]
[70]
Ruepert, L.; Quartero, A.O.; de Wit, N.J.; van der Heijden, G.J.; Rubin, G.; Muris, J.W. Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2011, (8)CD003460
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003460.pub3] [PMID: 21833945]
[71]
Ford, A.C.; Talley, N.J.; Spiegel, B.M.; Foxx-Orenstein, A.E.; Schiller, L.; Quigley, E.M.; Moayyedi, P. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2008, 337, a2313.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a2313] [PMID: 19008265]
[72]
Gupta, S.C.; Kismali, G.; Aggarwal, B.B. Curcumin, a component of turmeric: from farm to pharmacy. Biofactors, 2013, 39(1), 2-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1079] [PMID: 23339055]
[73]
Portincasa, P.; Bonfrate, L.; Scribano, M.L.; Kohn, A.; Caporaso, N.; Festi, D.; Campanale, M.C.; Di Rienzo, T.; Guarino, M.; Taddia, M.; Fogli, M.V.; Grimaldi, M.; Gasbarrini, A. Curcumin and fennel essential oil improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis., 2016, 25(2), 151-157.
[http://dx.doi.org/dx. doi: 10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.252.ccm] [PMID: 27308645]
[74]
Lang, A.; Salomon, N.; Wu, J.C.; Kopylov, U.; Lahat, A.; Har-Noy, O.; Ching, J.Y.; Cheong, P.K.; Avidan, B.; Gamus, D.; Kaimakliotis, I.; Eliakim, R.; Ng, S.C.; Ben-Horin, S. Curcumin in combination with mesalamine induces remission in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis in a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2015, 13, 1444-1449.e1441..
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2015.02.019] [PMID: 25724700]
[75]
Atkinson, W.; Sheldon, T.A.; Shaath, N.; Whorwell, P.J. Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut, 2004, 53(10), 1459-1464.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2003.037697] [PMID: 15361495]

© 2020 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy